Oak can be introduced by sowing acorns, but only in places where there are no wild boars and rodents.
With the optimal number of tree species per 1 ha, a closed planting tent is provided for the entire period of its cultivation, maximum use of sunlight energy by the photosynthetic surface of leaves (needles), as well as potential soil fertility. It should be borne in mind that the optimal rock density changes with the age of the stand. To determine the optimal density of forest stands in terms of individual age groups, experimental forest crops are created.
The density of partial forest crops should be such that at the end of the 2nd – beginning of the 3rd grade the main species could form a closed tent, evenly distributed throughout the site. The density of continuous crops is determined by the width between rows and the distance between planting (sowing) places.
Technology of creation and cultivation
Technology of growing forest crops is a system of agrotechnical, forestry, biological, sanitary and other measures aimed at creating and growing forest crops using machines, mechanisms, materials, and the organization of their implementation.
Agrotechnical methods of creating forest crops are determined by the nature of the terrain, type of forest conditions, category of forest area, forestry – the formation of plantations in accordance with its intended purpose, biological – using pest control, sanitary protection – sanitary sampling and other measures. plantations.
The most widely used technology for creating forest crops in the plains of the Western Forest-Steppe involves autumn tillage with a plow PKL-70, soil renewal in the spring disk cultivator KLB-1,7, planting seedlings with forest planting machines (SBN- 1A, MLU-1, P), care of cultures by means of cultivators KL-2.6, KRL-1, KBL-1, KLB-1.7 or DKLN-6/8.
Preparatory work is to mark the technological strips https://123helpme.me/write-my-lab-report/ in accordance with the projected location of rows of future crops. In order for the units to move freely in these lanes, the stumps are lowered with petrol-powered saws to a height of 5–10 cm. The stumps in the technological corridors must be lowered immediately after felling until they have dried.
Large stumps usually do not lower. If they are on the planting line, the row is interrupted, but not distorted. The optimal width of the strips in which the stumps are lowered is 4 m, although this requires certain costs. Starting from the age of clear-cutting, trees with reduced stump height are noted and cut down, which grow within the future technological lanes, where forest crops will be created.
The soil is treated only in the technological strips with tools with disk working bodies in two tracks or with active working bodies of loosening (milling cutters).
In the absence of grass vegetation on untamed logs, the soil can be left untreated. Necessary for the growth and engraftment of the plant loosening of the planting site is performed by the opener of the forestry machine or seeder in the process of creating crops.
In dry types of forest vegetation conditions on fellings with the number of large stumps up to 250 pcs. / ha the soil is cultivated by a system of black steam or furrows prepared by a shelfless plow. Cultivation is carried out in summer or autumn, and crops are created in the spring of next year.
In wet types of tillage is plowing furrows in the technological strips with low stumps.
Crops are usually created by planting seedlings, sometimes – seedlings. Oak can be introduced by sowing acorns, but only in places where there are no wild boars and rodents.
After planting the seedlings check the quality of work, as well as frame poorly planted seedlings. In places where the machine has not planted seedlings, they are planted by hand.
Agrotechnical care to create conditions for growth and development of crops is carried out after planting (sowing) before closing the seedlings (seedlings) in rows and between rows. Care is to loosen the soil and destroy grass vegetation, as well as to illuminate the trees while shading their undergrowth of low-value species. Care of forest crops also involves framing seedlings after planting.
Loosening of the soil, destruction of weeds and natural restoration of low-value rocks in between rows outside the protective zones of rows of crops is carried out with tools with disk working bodies (KLB-1,7) in the unit with a tractor by saddle rows. Herbaceous vegetation in rows and protective zones is removed mainly by hand. The application of herbicides due to their adverse effects on the environment should be limited.
Depending on the category of forest area and the main species being cultivated, standard technological maps of forest crops are developed, which list all operations for their creation and cultivation – from tillage to the last care of crops, indicating the cost of forest culture.
Ecological consciousness and ecological thinking. Abstract
The abstract considers ecological consciousness, ecological thinking and ecological measurement of public opinion
In general, environmental awareness (EC) refers to the mass concern of the population about the environment. In fact, the EU, which is rightly called awareness, ie understanding of the environmental situation, is an element of the threefold process of “perception – understanding – action”, each element of which is socially, politically and culturally mediated. There is usually a considerable distance between verbal expression of environmental concern and participation in social action.
The main characteristics of the EC are:
concern about the state of the environment; mobilization of moral resources; the ability to identify the source of the threat and its generating social subject; recognition of a healthy and safe living environment as a public value; individual mobilization, ie awareness of the need for personal participation in protests, creative and other collective actions; cognitive mobilization, ie the formation of readiness for action based on the understanding of information about risks and dangers; formation of a new ecological thinking in humanity (R. Mitchell, R. Danlep, R. Inglehart, B. Firsov, V. Safronov, etc.).
A necessary feature of ecological thinking is the recognition of the exclusive priority of the problem of sustainability of the biosphere in relation to anthropogenic actions among all other problems of practical human activity. In the absence of total environmental thinking of people, any economy, including a market one, will nullify all environmental measures of public authorities, thanks to the unrelenting corruption of officials.
Ecological thinking cannot be developed on the basis of acquaintance only with newspaper – or TV information about ecologically unfavorable events and regions. Undoubtedly, such information can be a cause for concern, but at the same time it can generate a kind of public infantilism, manifested in the full transfer of responsibility to professionals and governments, which, in turn, simply can not solve the problem alone. Without at least a general acquaintance with the fundamental laws of ecology of specialists of any profile, probably can not do.
Based on the degree of concern and the degree of acceptance of the NEP by an individual or group, assessment of the state of the environment in a particular place and willingness to participate in collective action, the following types of environmental consciousness are distinguished: developed, multifaceted; unilaterally concerned, inhumane; active (with technical and economic dominance); passive traditional (with an educational dominant) and traditionally active with the same dominant (M. Lauristin, B. Firsov).
Environmental concerns are usually higher in large cities (the so-called phenomenon of environmental concentration, which provokes solidarity consciousness), among people with higher education, and most importantly – post-oriented material values. The above types of eco-consciousness determine the willingness to participate personally in collective action and their nature.
Transboundary pollution transfer, interstate environmental conflicts, the formation of interstate alliances (European Society, NATO, ASEAN), the strengthening of transnational corporations – all these processes have stimulated the integration of national and regional environmental forces and the global environmental society network. The structure and forms of social action of international environmental organizations are considered on the examples of international green organizations-leaders (GREENPICE, “Friends of the Earth”, “Earth first of all!” Socio-ecological union). In fact, in their face we are dealing with the phenomenon of globalization of civil society, which puts forward the principles and priorities of the new world economic and political order, alternative to the existing ones.
From a socio-philosophical point of view, the formation of a global “green brotherhood” is the beginning of the practical implementation of the idea of the Noosphere. At the same time, the guiding principle of the collective action of the Greens is being implemented: “Think globally, act locally.” Using materials about the activities of the European Union of Greens, in which Ukrainian environmental activists are increasingly integrated, the potential of such transnational cooperation is expressed:
mutual learning, especially ways to mobilize resources; exchange of resources or their pooling in order to put pressure on international political institutions (European Parliament, NATO, World Bank); support and creation of a network of family groups; collective resistance has moved from one country to another of risky industries; expanding opportunities in informing the population; participation in interstate decision-making and development of pan-European environmental standards; mobilization of union forces to eliminate the consequences of accidents and catastrophes (D. Rucht, V. Grant, O. Mol, O. Yanitsky, O. Mozgova, etc.).
The specificity of environmental public opinion depends on who and in whose interests interprets environmental knowledge, information about risks and so on. It also depends on the dynamics of both the ecological and the general socio-economic situation in society, on the degree of trust of respondents to the state and other institutions of society. Public opinion about the state of the environment is structured by many parameters:
the general level of calm on the scale of priority social problems; its scale (local, national, global problems); focus (say, on air pollution); the level of public support / responsibility of the state and other aspects of environmental activities; degree of readiness for personal participation in solving a certain problem; attitude to the environmental movement, the level of its support or identification with it; measure of readiness to change the sound lifestyle, reducing the structure and volume of consumption and so on (R. Danlep, V. Rukavishnikov, V. Safronov, B. Firsov).
Indicators such as public opinion assessments of the urgency of environmental problems (for example, the general denominator of the polls in Ukraine and the countries of the former socialist camp was the need to address economic, political and environmental problems simultaneously) and, in particular, public consent are also important. on risk, ie assessment of the level of socially acceptable risk.